Thursday, May 14, 2020
Application Reinforcement Theory By Managers To Shape Employees Behaviours Business Essay - Free Essay Example
Sample details Pages: 10 Words: 3137 Downloads: 7 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Management Essay Type Analytical essay Did you like this example? INTRODUCTION The aim of this paper is to explain the application of reinforcement theory by the managers to shape employees behaviors in order to overcome restraining forces of change in an organization. Goal is to explain the managerial aspect of applying reinforcement theory. For better explanation, some basic fundamentals of Organizational Behavior and Organizational Development will be used with special reference to reinforcement theory and how managers should apply strategies in lessening resistance to change amongst employees. DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Application Reinforcement Theory By Managers To Shape Employees Behaviours Business Essay" essay for you Create order Purpose is to help us better understand organizational behavior and organizational development techniques and theory and how to implement them in an organization. I will be including all the essential components of reinforcement theory,its principle,its application as how it should be implemented by managers,what are the restraining forces that comes in the way during changes and how management should try to overcome it. Reinforcement is an extremely important principle of conditioning used by managers to influence their employees in an organization. It is the process of shaping behavior by controlling its consequences. Reinforcement theory is sometimes known as operant conditioning as it focuses on th relationship between operant behavior and associated consequences. Continuous reinforcement strategies are implemented to sustain employees desire to work as they loose their interest in work over long period of time. Hence management should use the reinforcement strateg ies and theories to motivate their employees and benefit their organization to achieve desired results. ORGANISATIONAL BEHAIOUR THEORIES Organizational theories helps to motivate workers and employees so that they can perform their jobs in the best possible manner contributing to overall development of the organization. These provide courage and motivation to the employees in order to improve their working skills. There are two best known names for the development of theories :- Parlov who developed theory of classical conditioning and Skinner who developed theory of instrumental conditioning. CLASSICAL CONDITIONING Classical Conditioning is the type of learning made famous by Pavlovs experiments with dogs. It is used by trainers to condition (train) autonomic responses, such as the drooling, producing adrenaline, or reducing adrenaline (calming) without using the stimuli that would naturally create such a response; and, to create an association between a stimulus that normally would not have any effect on the animal and a stimulus that would. Classical conditioning reflects how an organism learns to transfer a natural response from one stimulus to another. It is association between two stimuli. This theory is difficult to explain wide variety of observable human behavior, specially issues involving complexity. It does not allow for choice in the response options available to humans and applied in daily life. It deals with cognitive thought process. OPERANT CONDITIONING Operant conditioning forms an association between a behavior and consequences. This process has a wider application than the classical conditioning approach as it provides shaping of behavior in particular patterns. The basic assumption of operant conditioning is that behavior is influenced by its consequences One of the distinctive aspects of Skinners theory is that it attempted to provide behavioral explanations for a broad range of cognitive phenomena. For example, Skinner explained drive (motivation) in terms of deprivation and reinforcement schedules. PRINCIPLES OF OPERANT CONDITIONING Some of the important principles of operant conditioning that can aid the manager to influence behavior:- POSITIVE REINFORCEMENT Managers often use positive reinforcer to influence behavior. A positive reinforcer is a stimulus which,when added to the situation,strengthens the probability of a behavioral response. It can be used to improve employees performance. Positive reinforcement is highly effective and used for two reasons. Firstly, it is used for the direction or motivation of the actions of other people and secondly it uses versatile concept of reinforcement as an explanation of behavior. Many organizations uses positive reinforcements to increase productivity, decrease absenteeism and workplace accidents. For Eg. An insurance company offered incentives at end of each month if the agent succeed to reach their target. Another example,chemical bank has set up programs to positively reinforce employee actions that lead to better customer service. Positive reinforcemen t can be monetary rewards as well as non financial rewards such as recognition,merchandise incentives etc. When positive reinforcements are used, the desired outcome is that the behavior is reinforced. NEGATIVE REINFORCEMENT Negative reinforcement increases the frequency of a response following removal of a negative reinforcer immediately after the response. It strengthens the response as response removes some painful stimulus and enables the organization to avoid it. For example, exerting high degrees of efforts to complete a job may be negatively reinforced by not listening to boss. PUNISHMENT It relates to unpleasant reward for particular behaviors. It is defined as presenting an uncomfortable consequence for a particular behavioral response. It is increasingly used managerial strategy. This forms of reinforcements decreases the occurrence of the behavior in question. Organizations typically use several types of unpleasant events to punish individuals. Int erpersonal punisher are used extensively including frowns,grunts,personal grudges and aggressive body language of an employee. Punishments can also be materialistic i.e, cut in pay, demotion, final punishment can be firing of an employee,transfer to another job,etc For example, punishing a worker who slows down the work may be an economically necessary step to alter behavior, another example can be loss of pay. There can be negative affects of punishment,it can cause undesirable emotional reaction,another problem is control of undesirable behavior becomes restricted to managers presence only. EXTINCTION Extinction can be defined as decline in response rate because of non reinforcement. It refers to stopping of the reinforcement,firstly it leads to reduction n eventually omission of reinforcement. An example would be if an employee is not acknowledged despite of his or her tremendous work,he will finally stop doing so. This form of reinforcement decreases the occ urrence of the behavior in question. An important base for all these important principle is Thorndikes classic law of effect. Managers must strategically balance between the use of pleasant and unpleasant events occurring in an organization in order to meet their desired outcomes. However positive management procedures dominates in any well-run organization. Before applying reinforcements in an organization,managers also need to know as to when reinforcements should be used in order to influence level and rate of continued repetition of desired behavior. For this it is important to know the Schedules of Reinforcement. SCHEDULES OF REINFORCEMENT In an organization it is very essential to time the rewards and punishment and timing of these outcomes is known as reinforcement scheduling. There are different results of timing and frequency of reinforcement. Reinforcement schedules is widely used to explain different process of workplace such as absenteeism,motivation,different payment systems. Continuous and Intermittent Reinforcement Continuous reinforcements means that the behavior is reinforced each time it occurs and is the simplest schedule of reinforcement. If the reinforcement does not occur after each response ,an intermittent reinforcement schedule is being used. Ferster and Skinner argued that there are two basic types of intermittent schedules. First there are those schedules in which reinforcement occurs at fixed number of desired responses,secondly, there are schedules where reinforcements occurs regularly or irregularly. By combining these two ideas four intermittent schedules are made which they believe has different effects on behaviors. Four types of intermittent schedules are :- 1. Fixed Interval Schedule In fixed interval schedule,a constant amount of time should pass before a reinforcer is provided. In other words behavior pattern almost stops after a reward until the next interval . An example may be praise employees performance once a week and not at other times or payment of employees must be done weekly,biweekly or monthly. This is an monetary reinforcement that comes at the specific period of time. 2. Variable Interval Schedule It represents changes in th amount of time between reinforcer. Variable reinforcer varies in time and predictability. Examples of variable interval schedules would be managers giving special recognition to employees for successfully completing projects and promoting them to higher-level positions . If the manager does not changes its schedule,employee would anticipate his tours and adjust their behavior accordingly to be rewar ded. 3. Fixed Ratio Schedule In fixed ratio schedule ,the behavior which you desire must occur number of times specifically before reinforcement takes place. It produces high reinforce rate at closing of reinforcements. For example,paying employees weekly checks that is determined to be paid in expected time. 4. Variable Ratio Schedule Unlike fixed ratio,variable ratio schedule varies in the number of repetitions of desired behavior. There is a high rate of responding in this schedule. Managers often uses variable ratio with praise and recognition. For example ,In an organization bonuses or special awards are given after varying numbers of desired behaviors . Variable ratio schedules produces desired behavioral change which is consistent and very resistant to extinction. ORGANISATION APPLICATION OF BEHAVIOURAL MODIFICATION Organizational behavioral modification is a more general term coined to designate the systematic reinforcement of desirable organizatio nal behavior and the non reinforcement or punishment of unwanted organizational behavior. It is based on an assumption that behavior is more important than psychological causes (needs, values,motives held by individuals)(7) Application of behavior modification in organization follows step by step process:- 1. Managers must define and identify the behavior specifically. When a behavior is observable and can be recorded then it is being pinpointed. To be pinpointed as an important behavior,there must be positive answers to these questions: can it be seen ? Can it be measured? 2. Pinpointed behaviors must be counted by the managers as it provides a clear perspective of the strength of the behavior at the present or before change situation. By graphing these data ,managers can determine whether behavior is increasing or decreasing or remaining at the same. 3. ABC analysis should be conducted any managers of an organization. ABC refers to antecedents (analyzing ante cedents of actual behavior), behavior (pinpointing critical behavior) and consequences (indicates contingent consequences). This helps managers to analyze performance analysis questions significant in programs. Questions may be:- Antecedents Does the employer know what is expected? Have they been communicated? Are they clear about the standards? Behavior Can the behavior be performed? Could the employee do it if his or her life is dependent on it? Does something prevent its occurrence Consequences Are the consequences weighted in favor of performance? Do we note improvement even though the improvements may still leave the employee below company standards? Is the reinforcement specific? 4. Manager describes action plan and strategies after setting the first three steps. The strategies for strengthening desirable performance and weaken undesirable behaviors are positive reinforcers, negative reinforcers, punishment and extinction. Generally managers tends to use positive reinforcement in applying behavior modification programs but identifying it is not so easy. It can be identified by asking subordinates whats rewarding and another method can be by doing surveys asking about job preferences. 5. The last steps involves evaluation. This step is essential as it tells manager to review changes in behavior before the implementation of the program. Evaluation permits managers to measure performance on an ongoing basis. It also provide feedback to managers which help them to take corrective measures if any. Behavior modification helps to understand workplace behavior by making connections between stimulus,response and contingencies. Reinforcement theory is an important explanation of how people learn behavior. It is often applied to organizational settings in the form of a behavioral modification program. Although the assumptions of reinforcement theory are often criticized, its principles continue to offer important insights into individual learning and motivation. Assessing behavioral modification programmes in an organization has evolved a technique known as meta analysis. This collect studies using different sample sizes and weight them accordingly. One meta analysis of a larger number of studies found a 93 percent success rate which appeared in different target behavior and organizational settings. Organizational behavior modification is used widely among several organizations which includes united air lines,General electric, Proctor and Gamble, Michigan bell telephone etc. Organizational behavior modification is making and can make a positive contribution to organizational behavior. Absenteeism rates,quality of productions and employee safety behaviors appear to improve more often than not when using Organizational behavior modification. Hence a manager should understand that the employees are the most important aspect of an organization success, and towards the realiza tion of its goals and so every employee must be motivated in doing his function. Motivation is significant factor in persuading a certain employee to work at his best . Therefore, it is essential that reinforcement strategies should be continuously conceptualized and implemented in order to sustain employees positive attitude towards his work. Employees tend to loose their interest in their work over long periods of time; so continuous reinforcement strategies are implemented to sustain employees desire to finish their job. The strategies are based on Douglas McGregors two different assumptions (Theories X and Y). There must be continuous coercion and control of employees. They must be directed always on what to do. Continuous monthly reward must be given to employees to boost their self confidence and improve organizations desired outcome. By using certain theories and strategies ,managers can help in reinforcing their employees by fulfilling their needs, giving them bonuses,treating them equitably,making them satisfied ,more goal oriented and focused, resulting in high outputs to an organization. RESTRAINING FORCES BLOCKING IMPLEMENTATION OF CHANGE IN EMPLOYEES Kurt Lewin ,developed a management technique known as Force field analysis and is used to overcome resistance to change in an organization. According to Lewin, there are driving and restraining forces which influence any change that may occur in a situation. Driving forces Driving forces are forces that tends to initiate a change and keeps it going. pressure from a supervisor, competition may be some examples of driving forces in an organization. Restraining forces are forces acting to restrain or decrease the driving forces. For example, poor maintenance of equipment may restraining forces against increased production in an organization. In a group process, there are always some forces that favor the change and some forces that are against it. Therefore an equ ilibrium should be established and it is reached when the sum of the driving forces equals the sum of the restraining forces. To make the employees accept the changes, manager should push driving forces and convert or immobilize the restraining forces. HINDRANCES TO OD CHANGE PROGRAMS Uncertainty regarding change Employees resist change due to the uncertainty and ambiguity associated with the old ways of doing things. Generally,people tend to become more independent and active as they grow older and wiser in a firm. They become anxious accepting changes,they have fear of unknown.they are filled with insecurity due to lack of information in new techniques. Threats To Position Power This type of threat is often seen in top management,which threaten them to lower their status or prestige in a group during the process of change. Social Factors Every individual have social needs. While working in an organization employee becomes members of certain informal group a nd so,any change or new adjustment will bring a fear among them. The stronger the group ties,the greater the resistance of change. Threat to specialization. Any change in organization may also threaten the expertise of specialized groups. For example, giving specialized training to all the employees was perceived as a threat by the experts in an organization. Threat to insecurity Safety and security are high priority for every individual. and this is the major factor for resistance to change especially on the job front. When employees feel that the security of the job is at the stake due to the change, they resist it. WAYS TO LESSEN RESISTANCE It is very important for the managers to overcome the resistance of change in employees by using some of the following strategies:- Effective Communication: One of the foremost reason for resistance to change is inaccurate information or in other words lack of communication. Thus effective communication program can h elp in overcoming this resistance. Managers should give necessary information about any change, its process and its working through training class and conferences. Reasons for change must also be communicated very clearly among employees. This will help in making employees understand about the necessity of change in an organization. Participation and Involvement: Participation and involvement can help employee to accept changes in an organization. It helps in removing their doubts and to win their cooperation in the change process. This involvement of the workers can obtain personal commitment and increase the quality of the changed decisions. Negotiation and Agreement: Negotiation and Agreement technique is very useful and can make change go much smoothly. For example, union agreement, transferring employee to other divisions etc. Leadership: Leadership plays an important role in overcoming resistance to change. A capable leader can reinforce a climate of psycholo gical support for change. A strong and effective leader can exert emotional pressure on his subordinates to bring about the desired change. (8) Coercion: Managers may choose to coercion if all other methods fail. Coercion may be in form of explicit or implicit threats involving loss of jobs, lack of promotion, etc. Managers sometimes dismiss employees who resist change. It can seriously affect employees attitudes and may also have adverse consequences in the long run. Managers consider change to be an important ingredient to the success of any organization and therefore it is extremely essential for them to overcome restraining forces of change amongst their employees ,using such strategies and techniques. Gaining acceptance of proposed changes is the foremost job of the management as it directly focuses on Organizational Development. It is not the strongest of the species that survive nor the most intelligent but the one most responsive to change Charles Darwi n CONCLUSION Reinforcement theory deals with motivating and influencing behavior of employee. It is sometimes also referred as operant conditioning. In order to understand manager and employees perspective it is important to know the organizational behavior techniques and theory. Reinforcement theory shapes individual behaviors and so organization uses this theory to influence their employees. There are several principle of this theory which include positive reinforcement which is in terms of some monetary reward or non financial rewards,negative reinforcement which include dismissal or some kind of negative activity taken by managers, punishment and extinction. Then it is also important to understand as to when this theory should be applied by the management and so its scheduling is also significant aspect. Reinforcement scheduling can be continuous schedule or intermittent schedule. Further this paper focuses on application of this organizational behavior theory by the managers ,explaining managers actions and controls. It also focuses on restraining forces blocking implementation of changed program established by manager and later it also describes how to overcome resistance to these changes.
Sunday, May 10, 2020
<h1>Writing Your Essay - Why Is College Essay Contests So Popular?</h1><p>College paper challenges are an extraordinary method to acquire introduction for your gifts. It is likewise an incredible method to improve your own composing aptitudes just as your insight into the English language. Numerous essayists who partake in these challenges have discovered that their composing aptitudes have improved and they frequently report having improved their own composing style.</p><p></p><p>This is the reason it is essential to such an extent that you set aside the effort to attempt to get additionally composing experience before endeavoring to contend in these challenges. There are numerous grants and awards accessible for understudies, just as some administration awards, so setting aside the effort to investigate this may not be so troublesome all things considered. This can be a magnificent road for both your vocation and your scholastic ambitions.& lt;/p><p></p><p>There are likewise a few article challenges that offer honors to both the victor and the main two champs. These grants are typically a prize for the author who has finished the most work, in light of how much work they put into the exposition. Numerous understudies attempt to gain these grants to help their school articles. The best part about such grant applications is that they offer the understudy who applies the chance to return home with a watch that may even be bigger than the educational cost that they will be paying at their college.</p><p></p><p>Many of the exposition challenges will request that you present your work in a report position. As it were, the understudy who is the top decision by the editors will have the option to incorporate their article with different entries that are submitted to them. At the point when the main two papers are picked, the runner up will be added to the pack and the third spot exp ositions will at that point be added.</p><p></p><p>These papers are commonly made out of fundamentally the same as papers, which all spin around a subject that is generally known as the 'Compose an Essay Contest Theme'. Similarly as with most challenges, there are rules to follow for making your exposition stand apart from the group. There is no compelling reason to stress over composing mind boggling, specialized article or even an exceptionally cleaned paper that requires a ton of research and reading.</p><p></p><p>Instead, you essentially need to compose a postulation explanation. This is essentially what the editors are searching for and the purpose behind the topic. Be that as it may, on the off chance that you do have any inquiries in regards to the proposition articulation, the rules might be discovered online for you to allude to.</p><p></p><p>College paper challenges have allowed such a large number of understudies the chance to better themselves in the field of scholastic composition. So feel free to begin right away.</p>
Saturday, May 9, 2020
<h1>Essay Writing Topics For Bank Po Exams</h1><p>There are many exposition composing themes for bank test prep, and the key is to guarantee that you consider what you need to accomplish from the procedure. Regardless of whether you simply need to be set up for the test, or maybe you need to get ready for a prospective employee meeting, it is imperative to initially figure out what your primary objective is and afterward the best article composing points for bank test prep ought to be resolved accordingly.</p><p></p><p>First of all, you ought to choose what kind of paper keeping in touch with you need to achieve when composing this specific exposition for a bank test. Numerous understudies will do straightforward research about the subject to get ready, and some will utilize family or companions for references, at the end of the day it is your choice with respect to how you will approach looking into the topic.</p><p></p>< ;p>The most basic paper composing points for bank tests are business and law, anyway there are numerous different themes out there, so you should be available to various subjects so as to plan appropriately. On the off chance that you might want to utilize this for a school paper, you should discover what kind of article composing points for school are best for that particular sort of essay.</p><p></p><p>Some of the more well known subjects incorporate sports, PCs, music, and human science, while others center around verse, history, humanities, and other such subjects. You ought to figure out which subjects are best for you and afterward find that exposition composing points for bank test prep are best for you to use.</p><p></p><p>Some individuals may feel that a school paper is certainly not a secondary school article, however for reasons unknown it despite everything ought to be composed utilizing standard article composing themes for a bank test. The analysts for the Bank of England are searching for sentiments, which implies you should utilize inquired about realities to give an elegantly composed opinion.</p><p></p><p>A great approach to discover which paper composing subjects for bank test prep are best for you is to use a PC based testing instrument, suchas Quizlet. You can without much of a stretch sort in words, at that point see the paper that surfaces close to an inquiry dependent on those words.</p><p></p><p>You will at that point have the option to figure out which themes for exposition composing are best for you, and afterward compose your article likewise. This will assist you with figuring out which article composing points for bank test prep you should get ready for the test.</p><p></p><p>If you feel that you are arranged and prepared to handle the bank test, there are a few things that you should do before you start to co mpose your paper. These things incorporate discovering what theme you will compose on, investigating the realities, and seeing whether you make certain about what it is you need to say.</p>
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
A multitude of evidences show similarities between the FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s creature and Mary ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s. These indications show that the novel may be an autobiography. On the other hand, the novel shows a lot of the characteristics of science fiction. The novel cannot be classified as both, a real description and a fiction narrative, at the same time. An informed opinion about this controversy requires the evaluation of redundant critics. Sherry Ginn uses Ã¢â¬Å"Mary Shelley s Frankenstein: Science, Science Fiction, or Autobiography?Ã¢â¬ to adequate argue that FrankensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s creature is a science fiction novel by showing that it is not an autobiography, and by showing that the novel has all the characteristics of a science fiction narrative. This paper shows the procedure that Ginn uses to prove that Frankenstein is a science fiction novel, as opposed to an autobiography; it also analyzes her arguments, and her conclusions. Ginn proves that the novel is a biography by analyzing the elements of the novel and comparing them to Maria ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s life. The main elements of the novel, similar to the authorÃ¢â¬â¢s life, are the desire to resuscitate a dead child, a student conducting unethical research, the tombstone, an orphan, and a father that rejects his child. Neitherless, many discrepancies exist like the differences between the personalities of Percy Shelley and Victor Frankenstein, the fact that Mary never repudiated her father, and the fact that William did not reject Mary as Victor rejectsShow MoreRelatedThe Myth Of Mary Shelley s Frankenstein Essay1204 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesfiction, Frankenstein. ShelleyÃ¢â¬â¢s Frankenstein was deeply influenced by the Prometheus myth ranging from the history of the title, the action of the main character, and the consequences of performing the action. When the book was first published, Mary Shelley gave a hint of the Prometheus origin in the name of the book. 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Tuesday, May 5, 2020
Ã¢â¬Å"I Have A DreamÃ¢â¬ On August 28th of 1963, Martin Luther King Jr. We will write a custom essay sample on Martin Luther King Jr Rhetorical Summary or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page gave one of the most famous speeches of all time. Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ . The speech was heard by thousands upon thousands of people in front of the Lincoln Memorial in Washington D. C. This speech addressed many things, one of which was the severe racial injustices against African American citizens at the peak of the Civil Rights Movement in the U. S. King conveyed his message of social justice and equality with an essence of poise and eloquent detail. King was very good at connecting with the American people and convincing them to join the fight against the racial inequality and discrimination. This speech was so persuasive because King effectively used rhetorical methods throughout his speech. From what I took from this speech, King was able to utilize every rhetorical method including pathos, logos, and ethos. Martin Luther King Jr. Ã¢â¬â¢s speech, Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ , uses the emphasis of pathos throughout the duration of his speech. For example, he states true feelings that many people in our nation were feeling at that time, which brought out a strong sense of realness to his speech. The emotion that was expressed throughout was a key factor in the success and impact of Dr. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s address to the nation. One of his many great quotes that I found important is follows: Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed: We hold these truths to be self evident: that all men are created equal. (King 2) The way that he uses the morale of the crowd to emphasize his beliefs, was a perfect way to get his points across. King used many rhetorical methods in his Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech to state his views and promote equality in the United States. Many injustices towards blacks were happening all around the country. Government services such as schools were segregated into separate black and white sanctioned schools that were far from equal. Logos, one of the three key rhetorical elements in this speech was used quote well throughout. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas and beliefs made its impact and appeal the population. The ideas of KingÃ¢â¬â¢s racial equality and equal opportunity brought out a logical appeal of logos into Martin Luther KingÃ¢â¬â¢s speech. The third and final rhetorical method used in his speech was ethos, or the ethical appeal and credibility to the situation at hand. King showed that Black, White, Asian, or any other race should be considered equal and have equal opportunity to succeed and live a prosperous life. Martin Luther King Jr. id what he sought to do, that was to persuade and show people that any race, gender, or nationality should be equal and have equal rights. Martin Luther King used the appeal to pathos to make his speech so convincing. He targeted every citizen of the United States, because it would take every American citizen and their cooperation to bring equality to each individual. Ã¢â¬ Now is the time to rise from the dark and desolate valley of segregation to the sunlit path or ra cial justice. Now is the time to open the doors of opportunity to all of GodÃ¢â¬â¢s childrenÃ¢â¬ (King 1). Kings approach to appealing to the values of the American people he mentioned God, because religions impact to most Americans no matter their race or gender. King talking about God, spoke on their and ravished their emotions. Talking about family, King also had an impact to almost every American. Ã¢â¬Å"I have a dream that my four little children will one day live in a nation where they will not be judged by the color of their skin but by the content of their characterÃ¢â¬ (King 2). By mentioning things about God and family, king has leveled himself with the American population and they can relate to what he is talking about. By doing this, it was the best way to get people to listen to him and understand him. By showing that Blacks, Whites, and Asians all share major similarities that they can use to bring themselves together instead of focusing on differences that would drive them apart. Martin Luther King Jr. Ã¢â¬â¢s appeal to logos comes from the basic principals America was founded on. I have a dream that one day this nation will rise up and live out the true meaning of its creed. We hold these truths to be self evident, that all men are created equalÃ¢â¬ (King 2) His argument is logical absolutely true to be one of the founding principles of the country, which was that all people are created equal and given equal opportunity. At this time the government wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t holding itself true to that standard. The claim in the Ã¢â¬Å"I have a DreamÃ¢â¬ s peech was that all men were created equal and the support to this claim was the statement that presented itself in the Declaration of Independence. This will be the day when all GodÃ¢â¬â¢s children will be able to sing with a new meaning. My country tis of thee, sweet land of liberty, of thee I sing. Land where my fatherÃ¢â¬â¢s died, land of the pilgrimsÃ¢â¬â¢ pride, from every mountainside, let freedom ring. Ã¢â¬ (King 3) Martin Luther King Jr. used rhetorical appeals of credibility, ethos, to make his speech successful. By making the audience listen, he had to have some sort of experiences and credibility to be able to talk about racial inequality. Stating the obvious fact that King was a Black American during one of the nationÃ¢â¬â¢s most trying times of racial inequality and oppression, appeals to people because he experienced firsthand what has been going on. A black man talking about racial discrimination is more convincing and legitimate than a white person talking about it. KingÃ¢â¬â¢s qualification to speak about social injustices against minorities because of his background and education in morality and religion. People were also drawn to KingÃ¢â¬â¢s strong vocation for peaceful protests. One of the major reasons why king was likely listen to more was because of his standard of not having to use violent means of protest to portray his views of inequality and freedom. The many rhetorical methods in Martin Luther King Jr. Ã¢â¬â¢s famous Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech are all important for these reasons. Without the methods used throughout his speech, he wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have caught the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s attention and persuaded them with the use of logos, pathos, and ethos, the way that he could have. Without the use of the rhetorical methods used throughout this speech, King wouldnÃ¢â¬â¢t have got the response or the success of his speech. These methods had a strong impact which gave this speech power, to shape the audience. This well built, well thought out speech, was KEY to the Civil Rights Movement. From Kings numerous peace walks, and finally the Ã¢â¬Å"I Have a DreamÃ¢â¬ speech, gave way to a new America, one where one isnÃ¢â¬â¢t judged by the color of their skin or the social status of their being, but of their character, and what their morals are. I leave you with one final quote from one of the best speakers, Ã¢â¬Å"Free at last, Free at last, Oh lord we are free at last. Ã¢â¬
Question: Discuss about the Organizing an Event in Australia. Answer: Introduction: The report gives brief overview of an event in Australia. Here the event chosen is Folk Festival in Woodford. This would be a cultural and annual music festival to be held in north of Brisbane, Australia. The report gives an analysis of the event including its key performance indicator (KPI) and its assets. The report discusses about the how the event aligns with sponsor choice and determines the needs of the sponsor. There is also a discussion on understanding the core brand of the sponsor and the proposal made in a way such that it meets the primary objective of the sponsor. The report also clearly identifies the opportunities and the links that the events share with the sponsor. There is an overview of the marketing and the implementation plan described in the report. The report also speaks about the ways to service the sponsor and thereby mentions a list of benefits related to the sponsor. Analysis of the Event The event is a Folk Festival in Woodford that would be an annual cultural and music festival in the north of Brisbane, Australia (Yolal et.al 2012). The event will be one of the biggest cultural events of time with an expected attendance of 125,000 patrons. Assets of the Event There will be an overall 2000 performers for an approximate 438 events with international, local and national guests. The town of Brisbane will transform into a village that will host over a large number of patrons, organizers, volunteers, stallholders and patrons. However, the transformation of the town will take place with the help of 450 volunteers and contractors in less than a month (Mahadevan 2017). Proposal to Sponsor The grandeur of the event will provide a great platform to the Sponsors. The event is therefore looking for sponsorship from Tourism and Events Queensland (TEQ), Coopers and Creative Industries. The main problems sponsors face is getting visibility on a global platform and the fulfillment of the goals. However, this particular event will not only give the sponsor a visibility but also put forwards objectives that align the goal through the following benefits: The brochures printed for the event will have the logo of the sponsors There will also be banners specially dedicating the contribution of the sponsor The performers of the event get bags printed with the logo of the sponsors There would be other personalized benefits that the sponsors might as per their needs Opportunities for the Sponsors One of the chosen sponsors of the Folk Festival in Woodford is Tourism and Events Queensland (TEQ). The particular sponsor is a statutory body of the Government of Queensland, focused on destination, marketing and development of experience, and aims at providing aid in major events (Kir?ov and Pavl?eka 2015). Their website therefore features information and research on various events and tourism news thus making it primary for the media, government, industry and special interest group to contact them in any business related to events and tourism. Thus, TEQ puts forward a platform to inspire tourist for visiting Queensland for experiencing the best events of Australia. The presence of TEQ as a sponsor in the event can help it to enhance its visibility and boost tourism business in Queensland. The other preferred sponsor is Coopers who will not only get an enhancement of the visibility but will also be able to increase its profitability through product sale. Return of Investment of the Event The Folk Festival will have an internationally acclaim and will be held over a period of six days from 27 December until first of January. The programs of the festival will includes dances, street theatres, writers panel, comedy session, film festivals, acoustic jams, social debate and dialogue, program dedicated to children, talks, debates and films on environmental program, circus workshop and events, special events and parades, fire events and late night cabarets (St John 2014). The Festival of Woodford will have more than 2000 performers and close to more than 400 events that will features a mix of international, local and national guests taking place annually over a period of 6 days. The festival village will have 35 venues for performance and the streets will remain lined with bars, restaurants cafes, parades and street theatres (Alter and Keogh 2013). However, the festival will also creates a ground for an approximate 20000 patrons that will include installation of 35 meter of canvas, 15 bars and 200 merchandise, craft and food stalls. There will also be erection of 5500 signs and 13 kg of fencing. Further, there will be an arrangement of over 60 temporary offices and amenity blocks that are hired and filtration of around 14 million liters of water. Further, there will be constructions of 25 stages with placement of 16,000 chairs and installation of 600 lanterns. These initiatives will magnify the intensity of the festival and the prominence of Queenslan d at an international platform (Piazzi and Harris 2016). Therefore, the festival will aim to appeal diverse audience from all nationalities and age groups. The festival allows the audience to have a feel where they can escape reality and indulge in cultures from far, and near. Therefore, the festival will attract tourists across nationalities by informing them through distribution of brochures and program outlet. In this respect, the huge inflow of tourist can in a way boost up the tourism business of Queensland that TEQ aims at. The event will also have bars that will essentially have products from Coopers thereby increasing its profitability. Proposal Following Sponsor Primary Objective The Folk Festival will be an event that will have a rich cultural theme aiming to appeal the audience across all nationalities and age groups so that people can make a visit from across the world to this semi-urban town of Brisbane, Queensland, Australia and have an experience of a lifetime (Morrison, A.M., 2013). The event will also encourage people to talk about its rich cultural aspect and promote it by the means of various social media platforms as well as brochures. The vastness of the event with its unique objective of spreading its appeal across nationalities will not only increase the visibility of Queensland but also the sponsors who makes a profit in terms of tourism drive and increase in product sale. Marketing Plan A non-profit association known as Woodfordia Inc (Gibson 2013) will produce the event. The organization will aims at facilitating, stimulating and fostering the promotion and preservation of folk culture. However, the marketing plan for the event was in alignment with the organization responsible for producing it. These are as follows: Be a coordinating body in all folk related activities in Queensland. Through folk idiom encouraging the participation of artistic expression Assistance acquisition and passing of the skills that remains loyal to the folk tradition. Promotion of interest in studies, collection, folk performance, and dissemination with reference to the tradition of Australia and the state of Queensland Implementation and maintenance of projects like folk centre, folk club and concerts. Ensure necessary, informative and communication devices used for achieving the objectives Representation of membership in any forum that is responsible influencing the folk culture of Queensland Implementation Plan However, the implementation of the marketing plan be done in various ways. The Folk Festival conducted at Woodford will not only rely on the help provided by the people through the spread of word of mouth but also focus on promotion through various social media platforms (Dinner 2016). There will also be stresses on the distribution of brochures and posters for the promotion of the event and in a way the promotion of Queensland. The event is however open to new ideas for the promotion of the festival. Service to the Sponsors The event will have a popularity that will draws tourist to Queensland from all over the world. Moreover, the local people of Australia will also volunteer and help in the promotion of the event worldwide (Piazzi 2013).This will enable in fulfilling the objective of the sponsors in terms of business and profitability. The sponsors will also have a VIP treatment with an invitation for special seats. There will be special hospitality package for sponsors that will include champagne, wines and canap. The sponsors will also have special car parking and lock up facilities for storing their valuables. Opportunities for Customer Hospitality: The benefits for customer hospitality will include camping and car parking facilities, availability of childminding service, facilities of internet caf, lock-up facilities of storing valuables, better availability of mobile phone networks, availability of regulated bars, availability of laundry services and availability of zones that are smoke free. How the Event Is Making Money? Through Engagements The event is planning to make money through the invitation of various authors and celebrities that will enhance sale of tickets. Through Craft Shows The implementation of a craft show in the event in the event can also boost up the profitability. Including Pet Shows The event will also have a provision for pet shows that will attract pet lovers and tourist thereby leading to an increment in ticket sale. List Expenses/Revenue On site expenses The choice of the event venue will lead to the determination of the cost. In this case, since it is a major event so the venue expense is quite a bit. There are some constructions to be made for the event as well so it involves a major amount of cost. Food and Catering Arranging for the meals and beverages will incur certain amount of cost. Then there are also the fees that need to be paid to the bartender/server along with the gratuity and tax fees. Audio Visual There are also arrangements that need to be made for microphones, screen and projector, access for internet and various special equipments that incur certain amount of cost. Engaging third party Vendors There are many third party vendors in the event that gets involved who remain outside the event venue. These also involve certain amount of cost. Event Decors Various decorative items will be required to make the event look presentable. These include balloons, flowers, centerpieces and accent lighting. Entertainment The event is a folk festival so it will involve musicians, contract riders, speakers who will charge substantial amount of fees. Marketing and Registration There will also be expenses involved in marketing and registration that will include creation of brochures, advertisements and pamphlets. Admistrative Expenses The event authority will also have some administrative expenses that will include accounting fees, consultant fees and some amount of legal fees. Self Reflection While doing the work I remain organized and therefore could successfully complete the given task. In order to put a proposal forward it is required to understand the objectives of the event and how these objectives must play a role in choosing the sponsor. The sponsor chosen must have its vision fulfilled through sponsoring the event that I have chosen. Extensive research work done through the consultation of books and internet and they provided quite a valuable insight. My ideas developed through the extensive research work that I did. Conclusion The report concludes stating how the benefits of the events will ultimately be a boon for the Sponsors. There is also discussion about the servicing the sponsor. The marketing plan and its implementation mentioned in the report. The report also describes about the various activities of the event and its patron demographics. There also an accurate analysis of the event and the way they attract the sponsor. The report also ensures the accurate determination of the sponsor and their brand needs. The report further discuss on how the proposal meets the objective of the sponsors and thereby puts forward a clear understanding its core brand. References Alter, A. and Keogh, B., 2013. Some preliminary thoughts on patterns of programming in Australia's world music and folk festivals. In Shifting Sounds: Musical Flow: A Collection of Papers from the 2012 IASPM Australia/New Zealand Conference (p. 5). International Association for the Study of Popular Music. Dinner, G., 2016. Thank you to our Sponsors. Getz, D. and Page, S.J., 2016. Progress and prospects for event tourism research. Tourism Management, 52, pp.593-631. Gibson, C., 2013. Music festivals and regional development policy: Towards a festival ecology. Perfect Beat, 14(2), pp.140-157. Gibson, C., 2013. Music festivals and regional development policy: Towards a festival ecology. Perfect Beat, 14(2), pp.140-157. Kir?ov, A. and Pavl?eka, A., 2015. Development of social media strategies in tourism destination. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences, 175, pp.358-366. Mahadevan, R., 2017. Going beyond the economic impact of a regional folk festival for tourism: A case study of Australias woodford festival. Tourism Economics, 23(4), pp.744-755. Morrison, A.M., 2013. Marketing and managing tourism destinations. Routledge. Piazzi, F. and Harris, R., 2016. Community Engagement and Public Events: The Case of Australian Folk Festivals. Event Management, 20(3), pp.395-408. Piazzi, F., 2013. Building relationships with the local community: approaches to community engagement at Australian folk festivals (Doctoral dissertation). St John, G., 2014. The logics of sacrifice at visionary arts festivals. The Festivalization of Culture, pp.49-67. Yolal, M., Woo, E., Cetinel, F. and Uysal, M., 2012. Comparative research of motivations across different festival products. International Journal of Event and Festival Management, 3(1), pp.66-80.
Friday, April 24, 2020
Introduction Multicultural psychology is the systematic approach to all kinds of humanities that occur in a multicultural environmental background. This means that people from different backgrounds encounter each other thereby creating an environmental setting that results in composite human behaviour. The multicultural aspect has been perceived by psychologists worldwide as the fourth force in the study of psychology.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Multicultural Psychology: Acceptable and Unacceptable Behaviours specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Thus, it supplements such aspects as behaviourism and humanistic psychology. It is also worth noting that psychodynamic theories can be supplemented by the multicultural psychological aspects. Multicultural psychology concentrates on the differences in culture on the part of thoughts, accepted, and unacceptable behaviours. It is important to note that multicultu ral psychology does not only relate to the normal humanistic approaches but also focuses on the abnormal approaches. Brief History of Multicultural Psychology At various times in history, psychology has been defined as the study of the psyche or the mind of the spirit of consciousness. Recently, psychology has been described as the science of behaviour. The study of psychology is as old as the human species. Psychology can be understood to have began during the first studies of human cognitive experience such as those proposed by the early Greeks. The study also began during the attempts to account for dreams, mental illnesses and emotions, not forgetting fantasies. Many people have been engaged in developing the evolution of psychology. They include Plato and Aristotle who tried to account for such processes as memory, perception, and learning. Dating the age of psychology is very hard due to lack of past documentation. However, we can date the evolution of psychology thereby split ting this study to create multicultural psychology as one of the disciplines. However, to be precise, cultural psychology did not begin a long time ago. It was during the 1960s that it began. It then became prominent during the 1980s and 1990s.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Many texts have been written since then. Some of the prominent psychological texts include Sweder and Levine written in 1984 and the recent ones such as Nisbett which was written in 2001. Multicultural psychology is therefore not an old phenomenon in a historical perspective. Rationale for Establishment of Multicultural Psychology as a Sub Specialty of Psychology There are a number of reasons why multicultural psychology has been established as a sub specialty of psychology. Psychology can be viewed in a wider sense as the science of habits and the mind set. On the other hand, multicultural psychology i s the science of the mind and behaviours in an environment that has a mixed set of cultural backgrounds. In addition, psychology is further split into many other sub topics that include biological, clinical, cognitive, comparative development, and industrial-organizational aspects among many others. Social psychology also falls in this category. As a matter of fact, social psychology is closely related to multicultural psychology in the primary sense of relationships between groups and people. Multicultural Psychology and Social Psychology When people talk about social psychology, they imply to that kind of psychology that relates to people and groups. In a multicultural sense, social psychology takes a primary role in the sense that the interrelationship between the subjects is correlated. The two terms, that is, multicultural psychology and social psychology differ by a very small margin. This is because multicultural psychology deals with relationships in different cultural backg rounds while social psychology deals with the general relationships between groups and people (Friedman Schustack, 2009). It is pretty universal that people with particularly different personality traits may not co-work by virtue of contrasting interests in these characters. Nuclear qualities, personal dispositions, and cardinal dispositions in their personalities can be major factors which determine the workability of a certain combination of people and groups (Friedman Schustack, 2009). Thus, it is viable for people from the same backgrounds to work or relate together. This is because there will be fewer conflicts and chances of productivity within an organization or amongst a particular people will increase.Advertising We will write a custom research paper sample on Multicultural Psychology: Acceptable and Unacceptable Behaviours specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Family Psychology and Cultural Diversity Culture just like fami ly has been recognized by many psychologists as an important context for understanding the individual. Cultural forces have an impact on the way in which family interacts in particular ways. It is important to understand the impact of the cultural forces on the family in order for one to know how to work with particular families. In a multicultural environment, common problems that are usually encountered are the adjustment of the thinking so that it corresponds with the cultural diversity. Modification of the understanding of the concept of embedness to include the influence of a culturally pluralistic environment on the family is therefore needed (Szapocnik Kurtines, 1993). Cultural diversity can have different effects on particular families. For instance, among certain immigrants in the United States, the culturally diverse environment results in the onset of dispute-laden intergenerational acculturation differences in which the parents develop different cultural alliances with the youths. This is the result of the study that was conducted by the American psychological association among the Americans and Hispanics (Szapocnik Kurtines, 1993). Culture is important especially on a contextual perspective because it serves to represent an aspect that aids in the comprehension of human behaviours in different environments. Formulation and implementation of family-oriented intervention to propagate multicultural skills in all family members is therefore a necessary undertaking within a society (Friedman Schustack, 2009). It is important to note that no two individuals or groups of people can possess exactly similar characteristics. In a multicultural setting, this factor is further enhanced because of the polarized ideologies that exist between the groups in question. Industrial and Organizational Psychology This is the study of how people function in the work places and in different organizations in relation to the environment. This study entails issues such a s behavioural approaches, perceptions, feelings and cognitions in the humanistic aspects. Industrial and organizational psychology is also known as I-O psychology.Advertising Looking for research paper on psychology? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Conclusion From the above discussion, it is easy to conclude by saying that multicultural psychology is the systematic approach of all kinds of humanities that occur in a multicultural environmental background. Multicultural psychology does not only relate to the normal humanistic approaches but also focuses on the abnormal approaches. Multicultural psychology is a modern ideology that began in the 1960s. Since then, it has continued to evolve thereby causing many texts to be written even until the twenty first century. It is easier for people or groups from the same backgrounds to work or relate together than those from different backgrounds. This is because there will be fewer conflicts and chances of productivity within an organization or amongst a particular people will increase Reference List Friedman, H., Schustack, M. (2009). Personality: Classic Theories and Modern Research, Ed. 4. Boston: Allyn Bacon. Szapocnik, J., Kurtines, W. (1993). Family Psychology and Cultural Div ersity: Opportunities for Theory, Research, and Application. New York: American psychological association, Inc. This research paper on Multicultural Psychology: Acceptable and Unacceptable Behaviours was written and submitted by user Jair H. to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.